Valuation of options - Wikipedia

Costul opțiunilor este

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Intrinsic value[ edit ] The intrinsic value is the difference between the underlying spot price and the strike price, to the extent that this is in favor of the option holder. For a call optionthe option is in-the-money if the underlying spot price is higher than the costul opțiunilor este price; then the intrinsic value is the underlying price minus the strike price.

costul opțiunilor este

For a put optionthe option is in-the-money if the strike price is higher than the underlying spot price; then the intrinsic value is the strike price minus the underlying spot price. Otherwise the intrinsic value is zero. This is called the time value.

costul opțiunilor este

Time value is the amount the option trader is paying for a contract above its intrinsic value, with the belief that prior to expiration the contract value will increase because of a favourable change in the price of the underlying asset. The longer the length of time until the expiry costul opțiunilor este the contract, the greater the time value. These factors affect the premium of the option with varying intensity.

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An increase in the underlying price increases the premium of call option and decreases the premium of put option. Reverse is true when underlying price decreases. Strike price: How far is the strike price from spot also affects option premium.

costul opțiunilor este

Say, if NIFTY goes from to the premium of strike and of strike will change a lot compared to a contract with strike of or Volatility of underlying: Underlying security is a constantly changing entity. The degree by which its price fluctuates can be termed as volatility. Volatility affects calls and puts alike.

costul opțiunilor este

Higher volatility increases the option premium because of greater risk it brings to the seller. Payment of Dividend: Payment of Dividend does not have direct impact on value of derivatives but it does have indirect impact through stock price.

We know that if dividend is paid, stock goes ex-dividend therefore price of stock will go down which will result into increase in Put premium and decrease in Call premium.

Apart from above, other factors like bond yield or interest rate also affect the premium.

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This is because the money invested by the seller can earn this risk free income in any case and hence while selling option; he has to earn more than this because of higher risk he is taking. See also: Option finance § ValuationMathematical finance § Derivatives pricing: the Q worldand Financial modeling § Quantitative finance Because the values of option contracts depend on a number of different variables in addition to the value of the underlying asset, they are complex to value.

costul opțiunilor este

There are many pricing models in use, although all essentially incorporate the concepts of rational pricing i.

The valuation itself combines 1 a model of the behavior "process" of the underlying price with 2 a mathematical method which returns the premium as a function of the assumed behavior.

Ştiri 19 iulie Analiză www. Share România dovedește o interpretare excesivă și o aplicare extrem de restrictivă a opțiunilor simplificate în materie de costuri pe Programul Operațional Capital Uman. Toate aceste elemente vor avea ca efect îngreunarea sau chiar imposibilitatea dimensionării corecte de către beneficiari a diverselor categorii de costuri pe care le implică implementarea unui proiect. Cel mai dramatic impact este de așteptat să fie resimțit la nivelul costurilor cu echipa de management a proiectului care vor avea o dimensiune extrem de redusă, ceea ce se va traduce în practică prin imposibilitatea asigurării unei echipe de management de proiect care să răspundă eficient cerințelor de planificare, gestionare și raportare.

The models range from the prototypical Black—Scholes model for equities, to the Heath—Jarrow—Morton framework for interest rates, to the Heston model where volatility itself is considered stochastic. See Asset pricing for a listing of the various models here.

As regards 2 the implementation, the most common approaches are:.

  1. Valuation of options - Wikipedia
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